The idea that everything is made up of atoms is not a modern concept. The structure of matter has been under investigation for thousands of years. What happens if you go on cutting a substance into smaller and smaller pieces? Does this process continue ad infinitum? This had been a subject of curiosity for centuries. Ideas of atomic hypothesis were only vague until it was stated in a systematic fashion, by the English scientist John Dalton. Through empirical investigation and some ingenious deductive reasoning, he formulated the atomic theory of matter. In this article, I have presented John Dalton’s atomic model, which he propounded on the basis of his chemical investigation.
The atomic hypothesis forms the basis of modern physics and chemistry. It is interesting to know how John Dalton came up with his atomic model theory through the study of proportions in which chemicals combine to form compounds. Through clever analysis of the ratios in which chemicals combine to form compounds, he was able to arrive at his atomic theory. In the next section, I discuss the most important points of the atomic model by John Dalton.
John Dalton’s Atomic Model Description
John Dalton (1766 – 1844) was a man of many trades. He was a chemist, physicist, as well as a meteorologist by profession. He is recognized today for his pioneering work in the development of the atomic theory. Although the method by which he exactly arrived at the atomic theory of matter is not clear, it is known that his findings were influenced by his study of certain compounds like methane, ethylene, nitrous oxide, as well as nitrogen dioxide and his investigation of chemical combination.
He came up with the law of multiple proportions first, through his analysis, which is a law that is still used in stoichiometry. It concluded that when same chemical elements combine to form multiple compounds, their masses are always in definite ratios, which are whole numbers. This discreteness of ratios in which elements combine to form compounds gave the first clues to Dalton about the underlying atomic nature of elements. He accurately figured out the relative atomic weights of Hydrogen and a few other elements, through his chemical analysis of reactions. Let us have a look at John Dalton’s atomic model, which he arrived at through experimentation.
The first crucial conclusion which Dalton arrived was the following. He discovered that each element like Hydrogen is made of discrete particles of matter called atoms. These atoms are indestructible and do not change their nature through chemical reactions. However, they can combine together to form various types of compounds.
The atoms of one element are totally different from the atoms of other elements. The variation in the atoms of different elements is made apparent through the difference in their relative atomic weight. On the other hand, the atoms of the same elements are exactly alike in nature and possess the same relative atomic weight.
Further he discovered that atoms of different elements combine to form compounds. These compounds are always made up of atoms combined in definite and fixed proportion, which never changed.
One of the only flaws of the atomic theory of John Dalton, was that he supposed that elements like Oxygen are made up of single atoms. In actuality, oxygen is always found in diatomic form. This led to an inaccurate estimate of many of the relative atomic weight estimates made by him. This flaw in John Dalton’s atomic theory was later corrected by Avogadro. John Dalton’s work was the cornerstone on which the modern atomic theory was built.
As you can see, John Dalton’s atomic model was indeed right on most counts and considering that he discovered those facts without access to any advanced equipment, the credit must go to his superb intellect. His triumph in discovering the atomic structure showcases the ingenuity of the scientific method and his power of observation, as well as deductive reasoning.